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· 校本课程
八年级语文组——书法鉴赏教学
发布者:彭思思│浏览次数:2872        日期:2015-07-13 16:49

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目录

书法鉴赏教学·······························2

一、书法鉴赏教学的内容与方法···············································2

临摹教学·································2

二、提高书法鉴赏教学水品···················································5

(一)书法史概述···························································5

(二)唐代书法·····························································9

三、唐宋元明清的书法家及代表作···········································12

(一)唐朝书法家···························································12

(二)宋朝书法家···························································12

(三)元朝书法家··························································13

(四)明朝书法家··························································13

(五)清朝书法家··························································14

四、书法名家、名作赏析····················································15

王羲之简介及书法影印集览··················································15

(一)王羲之简介···························································15

(二)王羲之“书圣”地位从未动摇的原因····································?16

(三)王羲之书法作品影印集览··············································17

颜真卿简介及书法作品······················································21

(一)?颜真卿生平简介······················································21

(二)?艺术生品····························································22

(三)?主要作品····························································23

(四)?颜真卿书法作品影印欣赏··············································26

欧阳询简介及书法作品······················································30

(一)欧阳询生平简介······················································30

(二)书法特点····························································31

(三)常见欧书碑刻························································32

(四)欧阳询楷书作品影印欣赏··············································33

柳公权简介及书法作品······················································34

(一)作品特色····························································34

(二)生平简介····························································34

(三)传世作品····························································35

(四)书法影印欣赏························································36

赵孟頫简介及书法作品······················································38

(一)赵孟頫简介··························································38

(二)赵体楷书的特点······················································40

(三)作品影印欣赏························································40

五、我国古代着名书法家的故事·············································49

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书法鉴赏教学

一、书法鉴赏教学的内容与方法?

书法是中国文化的最有代表性的“形象大使”。书法素养的培养必须通过动手练习和作品欣赏双管齐下来实现。也就是眼与手的关系,学习书法必须“眼高手低”,对书法作品的鉴赏能力是书法素养的核心,下面将探讨这个问题:?

书法是中国的传统艺术之一,既有很鲜明的艺术性,又具有和人们的生活密切相关的实用价值,它伴随着汉字的产生和发展,经过历代书法家的熔炼和创新,成为一门具有悠久历史和民族特色的传统艺术。书法教育是传承这一中华民族传统文化的千秋大业,肩负着促进学生全面发展的崇高使命。?

在古代,书法教育占据着十分重要的地位,西周时期的“礼、乐、射、御、书、数”六艺中,“书”就赫然其中。

到秦代,“书同文”,以李斯“玉箸篆”为法则,由官方培养刀笔吏。

汉初,学童从小接受识字与书写教育。汉灵帝创立鸿都门学,提高了书法在整个文化领域中的地位,从艺术的角度提高了书法在教育中的地位。

至魏晋南北朝时期,出现了很多书法名家,如王羲之﹑王献之,书法艺术达到历史的高峰,书法教育非常受重视,成为上层世族童蒙教育的必修课。更因佛教繁盛,大规模的佛经抄写更促进了书法教育的发展。

隋朝开始行科举,初创书学,书法正式进入官方高等教育殿堂。至唐代,开国帝王实行了前所未有的兴教政策。在繁荣的太平盛世,酷爱书法的君主李世民最后完成了书学的建立与完备。书学,即培养书法专门人才的专科学校,于唐代始,历宋、元、明、清,皆为中央官办高等学府,专门从事正统、主流的书法教育。加上科举以书取士,善书者往往因此为官,为书法的发展提供了充分的条件,所以唐代的书法教育超过了以往任何一个时代。

宋三百年,朝廷重文轻武,书法教育也同步提升。宋代对书法教育的要求是史无前例的。

元代为了笼络汉臣与加强对汉人的统治,皇帝很重视学习书法和汉字,鼓励皇族子弟学习书法,出现了很多书法大家,影响很大。

明清时期,书法是科举考试的重要内容,贯穿与整个教育体系之中。国子监教学活动的主要有讲书、习字、背书、作文。“习字”,即书法训练,《明史》中提到国子监的学生须“每日习书二百余字,以二王、智永、欧、虞、颜、柳诸帖为法”。

清代的学校制度大致承袭明代旧制,学生所学科目有五经、四书、性理、习字等科。书法训练规定临摹晋、唐法帖数百字为日课。

综上所述,可以看出书法在古代的教育体系中一直都占有非常重要的地位,无论是官学和私学都非常的重视,形成了一套完整的书法教育体系。特别是因为科举考试,书法是重要的考试内容,直接关系到仕途,使得书法教育带有很强的实用目的。但如今,随着电脑的普及和应试教育影响,书法课渐渐被忽视,中小学的书法教育几乎是一片空白,导致书法正面临着后继乏人的局面。如今,不少人意识到在中小学开设书法课的重要意义,呼吁要逐步搭建起一套中小学完整的书法教育体系,从小学到高中,书法课应当在完成楷书、隶书、到行草教育的同时,还应延伸到古文字知识、诗词知识乃至国学的一整套教育。引起有关教育部门的重视,逐步将书法教育列为素质教育的重要内容。

临摹教学

继承、临帖是学习书法的必经之路,是向古人学习书法入门的唯一途径,书法历来讲究“取法乎上”,所以一定要选择古代的经典名帖,这是学习书法的不二法则。认真临习古代的法帖,先读帖,再临帖,侧重训练学生对用笔、结体、章法等特征的观察力,培养学生的观察力、模仿力和领悟力。可以在教师的指导下,让学生依据自己的兴趣和个性,自主地选择一本自己喜欢的字帖临摹。临帖之前要先了解笔画的笔势、结体和章法,然后再下笔,读帖和临帖相结合。习字,可先摹后临。摹,即把透明的纸覆盖在字帖上摹写,较之临更好把握。

书法是门很抽象的艺术,很多技法都是只可意会、不可言传的,教师的示范很重要,要做到集体示范和个别示范相结合,变抽象为具象、变模糊为清晰,而且青少年的心理特点更容易接受直观的形象,所以在教学过程中示范、欣赏很重要,教师可以选择一些供学生欣赏,如《曹全碑》、《礼器碑》、《张迁碑》、《勤礼碑》、《玄秘塔碑》等等。示范可以让学生直观地感受,从而产生强烈的书写兴趣。另外可以通过运用多媒体放映名家名帖和教学盘,让学生直观的感受,使课堂更加的活跃。

如是学颜鲁公的字,写字如做人,颜鲁公,是一个正义之人,以忠义着称,他是在与叛军的斗争中不屈而死,行得正,走得正,字亦正,千古不倒。他的书法风格,一方面是盛唐时期的博大宏伟,开放包容的文化氛围的反映;另一方面是也是他个人学识修养和伦理人格的体现,有着极高的声誉,对世人产生了非常大的影响。他的书法是最普遍,也是最受欢迎的书法范本。从颜体入手,那当然从欧也可以。对初学应该强调结体,从整体到局部,先把字架子写好,然后再学笔画。传统书法教学把“用笔”奉为至尊,反复强调“横竖点撇捺”的写法。

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